Specialized in Economics and Economic History from Paris-Sorbonne and Panthéon-Sorbonne Universities. He worked in the Ministry of Public Design (1967-1974) and the United Nations Program (1978-1979). He served as First Vice President of the Council for Development and Reconstruction (1991-2000). Professor at the Lebanese University, the University of Lyon, Saint Joseph University, and the American University of Beirut. Head of Research Center at the Institute of Social Sciences at the Lebanese University. Research Director at Saint Joseph University and the French Institute for the Near East. He has several books: Introduction to Lebanon's economic history, education and social mobility in Lebanon's diverse society.